HISTORY OF "IN FLANDERS FIELDS"
John McCrae's "In Flanders Fields"
remains to this day one of the most memorable war poems ever written.
It is a lasting legacy of the terrible battle in the Belgian Ypres
territorial battlefield against Germany in the spring of 1915.
The area was in the north west region of Belgium which was known as Flanders.
Here is the story of the making of that poem:
Although he had been a doctor for years and had served in the South African War,
it was impossible to get used to the suffering, the screams, and the blood here,
and Major John McCrae had seen and heard enough in his dressing station
to last him a lifetime.
As a surgeon attached to the 1st Field Artillery Brigade, Major McCrae,
a Canadian who had joined the McGill faculty in 1900
after graduating from the University of Toronto,
had spent seventeen days treating injured men
-- Canadians, British, Indians, French, and Germans.
It had been an ordeal that he had hardly thought possible.
McCrae later wrote of it:
"I wish I could embody on paper some of the varied sensations of that seventeen days... Seventeen days of Hades!
At the end of the first day if anyone had told us we had to spend seventeen days there,
we would have folded our hands and said it could not have been done."
One death particularly affected McCrae. A young friend and former student,
Lieut. Alexis Helmer of Ottawa,
had been killed by a shell burst on 2 May 1915.
Lieutenant Helmer was buried later that night in darkness,
in the little cemetery outside McCrae's dressing station,
and McCrae had performed the funeral ceremony in the absence of the chaplain.
The next day, sitting on the back of an ambulance
parked near the dressing station beside the Canal de l'Yser,
just a few hundred yards north of Ypres,
McCrae vented his anguish by composing a poem.
The major was no stranger to writing,
having authored several medical texts besides dabbling in poetry.
In the nearby cemetery, McCrae could see the wild poppies
that sprang up in the ditches in that part of Europe,
and he spent twenty minutes of precious rest time
scribbling fifteen lines of verse in a notebook.
A young soldier watched him write it.
Cyril Allinson, a twenty-two year old sergeant-major,
was delivering mail that day when he spotted McCrae.
The major looked up as Allinson approached,
then went on writing while the sergeant-major stood there quietly.
"His face was very tired but calm as we wrote," Allinson recalled.
"He looked around from time to time, his eyes straying to Helmer's grave."
When McCrae finished five minutes later, he took his mail from Allinson and,
without saying a word, handed his pad to the young NCO.
Allinson was moved by what he read:
"The poem was an exact description of the scene in front of us both.
He used the word blow in that line because the poppies
actually were being blown that morning by a gentle east wind.
It never occurred to me at that time that it would ever be published.
It just seemed to me to be an exact description of the scene."
In fact, it was very nearly not published.
Dissatisfied with it, McCrae tossed the poem away,
but a fellow officer retrieved it and sent it to newspapers in England.
The Spectator, in London, rejected it,
but Punch published it on 8 December 1915.
The Poem went on to become hugely popular with the public,
and has since become an abiding symbol of remembrance worldwide.